Bill Hillman's 
EduTech Research Project
John Tyman's
INUIT ~ People of the Arctic
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Part 4: Animals and Birds
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54. Skin being removed from ringed seal.
Like plants, animals too must adapt if they are to survive. 
They do this in various ways. 
Seals are insulated against the cold by a thick layer of blubber rich in oil.
55. Polar bear in spring. 
Polar bears likewise carry a lot of fat next to their skin, 
and they hibernate as well, at least the females do
(and give birth while they are asleep!).

56. Old whale bones.
Whales, too, had plenty of blubber rich in oil
but because of it few of them have survived (other than beluga). 
They were decimated by European whalers in the nineteenth century.
Only their bones remain.
57. Arctic fox killed in trap. 
As a defence against predators and/or to aid them in hunting,
some animals change colour to match their surroundings. 
However, camouflage is no protection against trapping..

58. Ground squirrel feeding in spring. 
Ground squirrels (otherwise known as gophers) burrow underground 
where they sleep in winter, snacking occasionally 
on food stored during the summer.
59. Caribou skins for clothing, being aired in the spring. 
Caribou are protected by one of the warmest of all furs. 
Their hair is hollow and provides excellent insulation. 
They also migrate in the fall to more sheltered areas further south, 
at least some of them do..

60. Skull of caribou killed by wolves.
They are culled by wolves as they do so. 
Those that remain shed their antlers in the winter (the males long before the females) 
and grow new ones inthe spring 
-- providing a useful raw material here in the absence of wood.


61. Stilt Sandpipers in breeding plumage. 
The best known migrants, though, are the birds. 
And their are millions of them in the Arctic in summer.


62. Snow Bunting in spring.
A few species live here all year round, scratching for food in winter. 
Included among them are the raven, the snowy owl,
the ptarmigan and the snow bunting, 
several of which change colour with the season..

63. Nest of Lapland Bunting.
Birds are lured northwards by the long sunny days, 
the abundance of new plant growth, the hordes of insects, 
and the many many lakes and ponds. 
They come here to raise their young and then fly off to warmer lands 
when winter returns to the Arctic.
64. Pair of King Eiders.
The eider duck, of course, is known for the soft plumage 
with which it lines its nest 
-- used to fill the first eider downs..


65. Canada Geese on their way north.
Water birds predominate here: 
and there are, of course, no birds that nest in trees!


66. Arctic Tern near nest site.
Some birds travel over immense distances. 
The Arctic Tern, for example, spends summer here and 
then flies to the Antarctic, sometimes pausing off the south coast of Australia.
It is the world's most energetic commuter..

67. Phlarope stirring up food on lake in spring. 
The red phalarope winters off the coasts of Africa and South America 
but also visits the Coral Sea, northeast of Australia.
68. Stint near nest on lake shore.
The tiny stint also visits Australian shores in the off season..

69. Golden Plover, American form, in breeding plumage. 
And the plover flies to India and Hawaii as well as to Australia and New Zealand.

Dr. John Tyman
I. Environment:
1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6
II. Food Sources: 
1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5
III: Clothing/Shelter:
1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6
IV. Family: 
1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5
V. Community:
1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6

Text, photos and recordings by John Tyman
Intended for Educational Use Only.
Copyright Pitt Rivers Museum, Oxford University, 2010.
Contact Dr. John Tyman for more information regarding licensing.

Photo processing, Web page layout, and formatting by
William Hillman | www.hillmanweb.com
Assistant Professor ~ Faculty of Education ~ Brandon University ~ Brandon, Manitoba ~ Canada