John Tyman's
Cultures in Context Series

105 Sound Bytes with Descriptive Text
5.2 Hours ~ 360.5 MB
Detailed Descriptions of these Sounds are Provided in a second table below.

1. Dawn Chorus
2. Sounds of late afternoon
3. Frog calls in evening
4. Evening thunderstorm
5. Rats at night
6. Woman scrapes alone
7. Two women scrape
8. Washing sago in swamp
9. Hens and chicks
10. Pig eating
11. Pigs scream for food
12. Twin garamuts
13. Faster Piece
14. Garamuts at opening of HT
15. Improvised bells
16. Two long flutes
17. Flutes at HT (low pitch)
18. Flutes at HT (high pitch)
19. Mouth pangal (jaw's harp)
20. Mouth pangal: "song"
21. Pangal piece: by Kami
22. Pangal: longer piece
23. String band: re girls
24. String band: re Wanniko man
25. String band: re bride
26. String band: with clapping
27. String instrumental
28. The village awakes
29. Sounds of hot afternoon
30. Children play alongside river
31. Sick parade
32. Children's songs
33. New Year's Eve ritual
34. Elementary spelling class
35. Primary language class
36. Classroom devotions
37. Church parade
38. Arts Festival: song "kaikai"
39. Arts Festival: "papamama"
40. Market in dry year
41. Market in wet year
42. Market canoes leave
43. Transport: by air
44. Transport: by truck
45. Spirit House: debate
46. Spirit House: men relax
47. Church bells in 1980
48. Bells & musicians tune up
49. Mass, unaccompanied
50. Mass led by deacon
51. Praise song, accompanied
52. Communion hymn
53. Radio programs
. 54. Summons to bride price
55. Bride price: later call
56. As interest slackens
57. Bride price harangue
58. Bride price completed
59. Ritual at bride's house
60. Final chants at her house
61. On way to grooms 
62. Chants at groom's house
63. Funeral: group chanting
64. Funeral: official mourners
65. Naven: garmut signal
66. Naven: kundu & chant
67. Naven: mixed voices
68. Naven: 2 kundus & chants
69. Invitation to Spirits
70. Flutes on first day
71. Complex flute sequence
72. Long flutes and percussion
73. "Bird calls" on flutes
74. Flutes and bells on third day
75. Garamut & flutes
76. Dancers from Torembi T2 & 3
77. Different sing sing rhythm
78. Debate re form of dress
79. Dancers from Torembi One
80. Lapun Man and Torembi One
81. Crowd sounds during interval
82. Spirits speak (through flutes)
83. Namagua: flutes in drama
84. Mamagua drama: final scene
85. Football club sing sing
86. Antonia introduces herself
87. Her family stirs
88. Antonia chops wood
89. Antonia prepares fire
90. Antonia starts cooking
91. Her children wash
92. Her family awaits breakfast
93. Antonia washes dishes
94. Antonia rolls up bedding
95. Antonia sweeps house
96. Antonia fells sago palm
97. Antonia trims trunk
98. Antonia scrapes sago
99. Antonia washes sago
100. Crosses river in flood
101. Emma cooks pancakes
102. Antonia feeds chicks
103. Antonia feeds pigs
104. An evening at Antonia's 
105. George plays ukelele

Natural Setting
1. Dawn chorus in high-sun season: alongside flowing river in Torembi 3. Birds call from forest, cicadas are active, and  chickens wake beneath a nearby haus marit.
2. Sounds of late afternoon in high-sun season on outskirts of Torembi 3. Calls of cicadas, frogs and birds: with sound of distant garamut. 
3. Frog calls in early evening, on road to Mission. Plus insects: and chickens in distance.
4. Evening thunderstorm. Sound of rain drumming on thatch roof and dripping into puddles under eves: also distant thunder,
5. Rats leave nest in roof at night and scurry across floor of hut in search of food. 

Collecting Sago (see also "Day in the Life of a New Guinea Woman")
6. Woman scraping sago alone, without rhythmic chant.
7. Two women scape together; with two different chants.
8. Sago being washed in swamp, with insect hordes buzzing.

Livestock (see also "Day in the Life of a New Guinea Woman")
9. Hens with chicks at feeding time. 
10. Pig eating happily in late afternoon.
11. Pigs scream for food. 

Music (see also Weddings, Naven, and the Opening of the Spirit House)
12. Two garamuts, two players, one stick each. The first part of what was to be a long sequence.
13. A faster two garamut piece. 
14. Garamuts played during sing sing at opening of new Spirit House, with chanting of dancers in background carrying kundu drums. 
15. "Bells" (actually lengths of steel pipe) at opening of new Spirit House.
16. Two long flutes (and yelping dog). 
17. Flutes at opening of new Spirit House: contrasting pitches.
18. Ditto: higher pitched piece. 
19. Mouth pangal (or jaw's harp) made and played by Raymond Kami. Storyline unknown. 
20. Mouth pangal by Raymond Kami. Song without words; about a woman and a man. He tempted her to do wrong, but she rejected his advances.
21. Pangal played and made by Raymond Kami. Full-size and placed on ground in front of him. "Em tasol" at the end means "that's all".
22. Ditto: a longer piece.
23. String band (with 6 members) in Torembi 3, performs a song about a band member who had two girl friends at the same time -- which was considered unfair. 
24. Ditto. Song about an old man from the Wanniko clan in Torembi 3 who was moved to tears recalling stories of his ancestors. 
25. Ditto. Duet about a bride price of 1,000 kina. 
26. Ditto. Song accompanied by clapping. 
27. Ditto. An instrumental piece, without words. 

Family Life (see also "Day in the Life of a New Guinea Woman")
28. The village awakes -- from 5.00 am. Bird calls from the forest, cicadas,  cockerels wake those still sleeping, children cough in huts, chicken, chicks and pigs emerge, and someone washes in the river in the distance. (Recorded in Torembi 3: with some motor noise from tape deck.) 
29. Sounds of a hot afternoon. Children play; some throwing sticks to knock down coconuts, others jump in the river. (Men chat or sleep in Spirit House while their women are working at home or in the forest.) Sound of frogs, forest birds, cockerels, cicadas, and radios: plus a rifle shot (probably at a pig). 
30. Children play alongside the river Kwatit, close to the fishing weir ( the noise of which can be heard in background).
31. Sick parade. Sound of patients (women and children mostly) at the haus sik or clinic, at 8.30 am. 
32. Series of children's songs sung by Francis Mungun and friends:
 (1) "Wok Garden": Wok gaden, wok gaden
    Wok gaden long moning
    Wok gaden long belo 
    Wok gaden, wok gaden
    Wok gaden long apinun taim.
    ("Belo" refers to "midday" or "lunchtime")
 (3) "Somebody's knocking at our door"
 (4) "I believe God"
 (5) "This old man"
 (6) National Anthem: 
Arise all ye sons of this land
     Let us sing of our joy to be free
     Praising God and rejoicing to be
     Papua New Guinea.

     Shout our names from mountains to sea
     Papua New Guinea
     Let us raise our voices and proclaim
     Papua New Guinea.

     Now give thanks to the good Lord above
     For his kindness, his wisdom and love
     For this land of our fathers so free
     Papua New Guinea.

     Shout again for the whole world to hear
     Papua New Guinea
     We have received our unity
     Papua New Guinea.

 (NB: These are the correct words. the children blend verses 2 & 4)

 (7) "The parmer sows his seed" (there being no "f" sound in pidgin) 
 (8) "Old Macdonald had a farm" (or a variant thereof)
 (9) "Yankee Doodle"
 (10) "Germany Bomb": 
     Mother's in the kitchen
     Cooking rice and meat
     Daddy's in the toilet
     Making Germany (or Japany?) bomb.
33. Sound of drums, plus pots and pans and tin cans carried around the village, at midnight on New Year's Eve, to frighten away evil spirits. 

34. Reading and spelling class at the elementary/pre-school.
35. English language lesson at the primary school.
36. Classroom devotions at the end of the school day in the primary school (Lord's prayer and hymn).
37. End of term church parade. Primary school children attend Mass at the mission church, singing first in pidgin then English. Service taken by local deacon (in 1994).
38. Choir at Arts Festival sing "Kaikai" (meaning "food"), promoting the virtues of a variety of vegetables. (Nutrition songs are an important element in the official curriculum -- to encourage better diets.)
39. "Papamama" -- another nutrition song (sung to an old French tune):
 Papamama, papamama
 Harim gut, harim gut
 Wokim pinat gaden
 Wokim bin gaden
 Bilong yu, bilong yu.

 Papamama, papamama
 Harim gut, harim gut
 Wokim kumu gaden
 Wokim sayor gaden
 Kaikai gut, kaikai gut.

 Papamama, papamama
 Harim gut, harim gut
 Wokim kaukau gaden
 Wokim kaukau gaden
 Bilong yu, bilong yu.

40. Thursday market in a dry year (January 1981). Sound of friendly banter and bartering. Women's voices almost entirely.
41. Thursday market in full swing in a wet year (January 1982) with sound of women walking through mud.
42. Near close of this same market in the same year. Sepik women, with a powerful radio, pack produce into their canoes. The banks of the river were slippery and the radio was bumped during loading. The music changes and fades as the canoes disappear downstream.


43. Crowd waits beside mission airstrip for plane to take off.  The pilot warns of the prop starting up, then taxis to the far end of the runway, becoming airborne on its return.
44. "Bus service" (using small truck) operated by Peter Marion from Torembi 3. People line up and jostle for room -- for their baggage as well as themselves. Others just watch. After a false start the vehicle drives away -- to wild applause.

Spirit House
45. Extracts from long debate in haus tambaran. Series of spirited exchanges when debating stool struck with switch of leaves to emphasize points. Plus sounds of chicken (hanging from roof) that will be handed over at the end to seal the agreement: and of notched lime sticks being withdrawn from gourds by men chewing betel nut. (In earlier days each notch signified an enemy killed in battle: and the noise one's stick made won you attention.)
46. Men sit and chat there of an evening, swatting mosquitoes, and listening to the radio (once it has been tuned in).

Christian Church
47. Church bells invite people to Mass on Christmas Eve in 1980.
48. Similar  invitation in 1994: but start of service now also marked by musical instruments being tuned in readiness. (Recorded inside church.)
49. Extracts from Mass on Christmas Day in 1980. Begins with chant, missionary priest's invocation, then local deacon welcomes the congregation to their Christmas celebration: then prayers, more chanting, and hymn "Do Lord remember me" (unaccompanied singing).
50. Mass led by deacon in 1994. Verses and responses, hymn "Alleluia" (with guitar and keyboard accompaniment), then prayer.
51. Praise song "Hosanna" -- spirited rendition with accompaniment, in 1994.
52. Communion hymn: "Eat my bread and drink my wine." 

Radio Broadcasts

53. Typical afternoon programming on radio from Port Moresby.

54. Initial drum call on garamut announcing to neighbouring villages that the bride price ceremony will soon take place. (Complete call.)
55. Drum call an hour or so later, as crowd gathers, urging clan members to pay their share of the bride price.
56. One of several follow-up calls reminding people of their responsibility to come and contribute: with spoken encouragement from the sidelines in the haus tambaran.
57. Bride price harangue. Heated debate in haus tambaran critical of those who had promised to contribute but had yet to do so. With sounds of the celebratory chicken; also of notched lime sticks withdrawn from their gourds by men chewing betel nut. Additional garamut call.
58. Drumming and conversation as payment of bride price nears completion ... with sound of chicken used to seal agreement. Women dance outside and their voices join with those of the men to celebrate the successful outcome.
59. Extracts from rituals at the house of the bride before she leaves it for the last time, with chanting and stamping of feet: and, eventually  tears. (Ceremony explained in pidgin for my benefit.)
60. Final chant at bride's home before her departure. Incorporates improvised percussion provided by a load of beer bottles in a string bag on a woman's back.
61. Two extracts of chants en route to the groom's village (with beer bottle percussion as before). Male and female voices interwoven. Call of garamut in background not related to this procession.
62. Scene at groom's house as the bride arrives and is soon engulfed by teams of dancers from both villages.

63. Men with kundu drums chant in act of mourning outside the house of the deceased.
64. The official mourners bow and weep in front of an effigy of the deceased. Men continue to chant in the background and are joined later by women.

Honouring the Living
65. On the day of the naven ceremony a pig is shot early in the morning and a garamut, softly at first, announces the killing and broadcasts an invitation to the ceremony.  (Recording made at house of the one to be honoured, which was some way from the haus tambaran.) This is followed by an answering call in the distance, which is then acknowledged by the Torembi 3 drum. (The intervals between the calls have been reduced but the drum sequences are complete.)
66. Early in the naven ceremony. Kundu drumming plus chant -- first solo, then duet. Sound of the three dancers' movements  faint in background.
67. Chanting without drums but several voices now, including women.
68. Two kundu drums plus chorus of voices with, in background, faint sound of women's footsteps as they dance. The ceremony actually lasted most of the day.

Opening of new Spirit House in Torembi 2
69. Before sunrise. The initial invitation to each of the moiety's ancestral spirits  to occupy the building prepared for them. Their arrival was signified by the voices of flutes hidden in the roof of the building. (Recording continuous, without editing.)
70. Sound of flutes and gathering crowds later in the morning.
71. Complex flute sequences later that day, before the dancing started, plus sounds of conversation (because recorded inside haus tambaran.)
72. Interweaving of long flutes and percussion (bells --  actually pieces of steel pipe) on day one, with men talking .
73. Bird-like flute calls  and improvised "bells", plus men talking. First day still.
74. On the third day. Flutes and bells still speak for the spirits.
75. Garamut and flute sequence on day of the opening, just prior to the arrival of dancers for the main sing sing.
76. Sing sing on day one. Dancers from Torembi 2 and 3 --  backed by kundu drums, flutes and chimes -- chant as they process round and round the Spirit House and its waak. Footsteps and crowd noise: with some distortion from bass flute, and from kundus as the dancers pass close to the microphone. The first of the 150 verses in their chant runs:

    My father, they are all going around the Waak,
    My elder brother, they are all going round the Waak,
    With fine decorations, the elders are going round the Waak and Stone at Timbunmeri.
    My father, they are all going round the Waak,
    With fine decorations, the elders are going round the Waak and Stone at Mangawimeri.
    My elder brother , they are all going round the Waak.
 ("Timbunmeri" and "Mangawimeri" are the names of an old village on the Sepik.)

77. A different drum rhythm, with long flutes in background.
78. Debate in the new Spirit House on day three, in which the men of Torembi 2 discussed how they should decorate themselves for the next phase of the celebrations, when the dancers from Torembi 1 would join them.
79. Dancers from Torembi 1 take over the sing sing, backed by garamut and kundu drums. Some wear rattles on their ankles made from seed pods. In background can sometimes be heard, briefly, instructions from a presiding "lapun man" spoken via a short flute.  (Sequence recorded as before inside the haus.)
80. Dancers from Torembi 1 pause, receive fresh instructions from the presiding "lapun man" with his short flute, and set off again ... round and around the Spirit House and its waak.
81. Sound of crowd resting (and eating) during break in sing sing.

Dance Forms in Modern Contexts
82. Flutes speak for ancestral spirits in the haus tambaran at Namagua as an introduction to the drama which would unfold outside.
83. Flutes continue inside as the drama is acted out.
84. Drumming, dancing  and chanting  towards the end of the drama, then debate over compensation to be paid for the killing; crowd noises, laughter and applause at the end.
85. Rehearsal for sing sing in which young men in Torembi 3 planned to display their talent while raising money for soccer. They are coached (musically) by Damien Mungun, most noticeably at the start. Later also the sound of young men practicing their movements, wearing masks and long grass skirts which covered their bodies.

A Day in the Life of a New Guinea Woman
86. Antonia Mungun introduces herself. Prompted (unnecessarily) by her husband, Damien, she talks of her family's need for food (kaikai) and says she will make pancakes for them from sago (saksak) while her children wash in the river (barat).
87. Morning outside Antonia's house (around 6.30 am). Sound of bird calls from the forest, insects, and hen with chicks; also of people moving in the house, others washing in the river; also of children waking up, and Damien suggesting they should wash..
88. Antonia chops wood for cooking pancakes. 
89. She prepares the fire, using the husks from coconuts and dried sago palm leaves as starters. Sound of laying the fire, lighting it, and blowing on it to get it going.
90. Damien and the children chat and the pigs under the house grunt, as Antonia starts cooking. She chops off sago (saksak) from a lump, kneads it, and spreads it around the pan. She scrapes the pan clean between pancakes. Damien asks if their food (kaikai) will be ready soon, and tells the children they should wash in the river quickly. Thereafter Antonia provides a running commentary as she works.
91. Damien takes the young ones to the river for wash wash. Donna has fun but Marion objects strongly. In the background birds, insects, and the sound of water at the weir.
92. Waiting for Antonia to finish cooking. Fire crackles, Antonia prepares pancakes, kids cough and chatter, dogs whine, cock crows,  chicks chirp, Damien spits betel juice: while the radio offers "Pearly Shells" and "Jack and the Beanstalk".
93. Antonia scoops a bucket of water from the river, and washes the dishes: while her pigs grunt for food in the background.
94. Antonia rolls up the night's bedding -- with encouragement (maybe even help) from Donna and Marion.
95. Antonia sweeps out the house (with a home-made broom) while her husband talks to the children.
96. Antonia fells a large sago palm (her husband looking on),  and is panting for breath by the time she's finished.
97. She tidies up along the trunk in readiness for scraping; and starts to remove sections of the thick bark to provide her with a dry seat above the swamp. Damien comments from the sidelines.
98. Antonia begins to scrape sago, but first explains to me what she is going to do. She scrapes to a series of rhythmic chants (which she introduces), with whispered corrections and criticism from her husband, and is soon fighting for breath. 
99. Antonia washes the sago she has scraped. She adds water to fibres she has dumped in the trough, and squeezes this mixture against a strainer to separate the water carrying the powder from the fibres which are thrown to one side. Damien scrapes in the background to make up for the delay caused by my presence. 
100. Sound of the river in flood as Antonia crosses it on her way to collect greens from the bush. Sound of debris bumping against the now floating bridge.
101. Emma (aged 12) sings to herself as she cooks pancakes and cares for the little kids while Antonia is away. She puts a pan on the fire, chops up some sago, scrapes the pan clean, spreads the dough around the pan, and blows on the fire.
102. Antonia feeds her baby chicks on grated coconut. In the background, news in pidgin on the radio.
103. Antonia next feeds her pigs, which are now hungry for food and eat with great gusto.
104. Sounds of a typical late afternoon and evening at the Mungun house. Emma sings while she cooks more pancakes. Antonia scrapes coconuts to feed her chickens. She then breaks up beans from her garden to make soup and talks to me about different foodstuffs. She strains coconut milk through coconut matting to provide stock for the soup, and blows on the fire. Their radio plays in the background, pigs grunt, hens cluck, cocks crow and Damien talks with the children. The soup simmers and then boils -- while in the distance the football supporters practice for their sing sing. The evening's activities are interrupted briefly by a sudden downpour, during which some rainwater is collected in a bucket.  The family eats the food Antonia and Emma have prepared: and the children play inside their mosquito net before sleeping. 
105. George sings quietly, accompanying himself on a ukulele.


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